You can download a printer friendly version from HERE

Third-person narratives are written in the third person (he / she / they / it) and are real or imaginary stories about another person or other people. It should consist of:
    An INTRODUCTION in which you set the scene (who was involved, time, place, etc) in an interesting way to help the reader imagine the scene and want to continue reading.
   A MAIN BODY consisting of 2 or more paragraphs in which you develop your story presenting the events in the order that they happened. 
   A CONCLUSION in which you say what happened at the end and refer to people’s feelings, final comments or reactions.

To make you narrative more interesting to the reader, you should:
·         Use a variety of adjectives or adverbs, such as imaginative, wonderful, etc instead of simplistic ones such as nice, good, well, etc
·         Use a variety of verbs such as wondered, screamed, etc to avoid using “said” all the time.
·         Use similes, i.e. expressions which describe people or things by comparing them to someone or something else. E.g. She ran like the wind.
·         Use present or past participles to join two simple sentences into one longer, more sophisticated sentence, e.g. Instead of He turned on the light. He saw someone in the room, you can write Turning on the light, he saw someone in the room.
·         Instead of She was relieved. She left the police station, you can write: Relieved, she left the police station



Mysterious creak on the staircase? Warm spot on your bed? Dog tags jangling when you’re all alone? Sensation of a phantom paw on your shoulder? Could be a ghost dog!

Maybe your beloved pet has passed away, or you’re standing upon an ancient dog run/burial ground. Maybe unbeknownst to you, your house was built on an old abandoned pet cemetery or you’re spending the night in an ancient castle turned bed and breakfast. Whatever the case may be, you’re experiencing paranormal pup activity and no surprise, these phantom pup sightings have been reported nationwide and around the world. People have witnessed ghost dogs going on ghost walks, felt the spirits of dogs long passed looking for scraps under the table and seen paranormal pooch energies resting peacefully in their old favorite spot by the fire.
Even Christopher Knight who played Peter on the original Brady Bunch saw ghost dogs!

So if you think you’ve seen the ghost or spirit of a dog, don’t feel crazy! You’re not alone.
Some say your pet dogs come back to visit you from beyond to make sure you’re okay, and to let you know they’re still watching over you. This can be a great comfort, especially if your pet has been taken from you suddenly, and you’re still grieving painfully. Then usually, after your ghost pet visits you, they move on to their next life, and they’re not seen again.

Now, other ghost dogs, who might more accurately be called apparitions, show up at certain landmarks frequently throughout time, to relatives and strangers alike. It’s like they’ve become part of the landscape. That, or they can’t give up their favorite chair.
At the Holly Hotel, in Holly Michigan, an apparition of Leona the rat terrier runs up and down the halls and barks. Oh, those terriers! Even after life! 

But be careful. Not all ghost dogs are man’s dead best friend. Like, in Valle Crucis, North Carolina, there’s a demon ghost dog, that springs out of the cemetery, will chase you down, and come right after your car!
And if you visit Hanging Hills, Connecticut– you only want to meet their legendary ghost, the Black Dog, once. Then get out of there! Because if you keep running into him, it’s a total death omen, ahh!

I think the lesson is: Don’t approach the ghosts of dogs you don’t know, or at least ask their ghost owners for permission first.
If you are experiencing a dog haunting and you’re not in any danger, take a picture and share it! Like these ladies: AngelsGhost.com 

Are the statements below TRUE or FALSE?

1.       Many people have seen ghost dogs
2.       Apparitions move on to their next life once they have visited their owners
3.       All ghost dogs are evil
4.       Seeing  the Black Dog more than once is not a good sign

1.         If you hear a mysterious creak in the staircase, you ___________________ call the police because it _________________________ a ghost dog.
2.         _______________ you ____________________________ paranormal pup activity? I have!!
3.         Some ghost dogs can be felt in spots where they _____________________  rest when they were alive.
4.         If a ghost dog is haunting you and it looks dangerous, you _____________________ take a photo.
Watch a video in which American actor Cristopher Knight is telling a ghost story.  As you listen, complete the gaps with ONE or TWO words.

“My story took place while I was on holiday in my _____________________ house.
At night we sat by the fire and started telling ghost stories about the _________________________.
Later we were sent to bed and when I was about to get to sleep, I saw _________________________ and a  _________________________.
The following morning, I wanted to see the pets, but, to my amazement, I was taken to the ____________________ and I realized that the only hunting dogs in the house were part of the fireplace screen .” 

Have you ever been told a ghost story? Has anyone you know had a paranormal experience?
Write about that creepy experience. You should add details to make it more interesting and … spookier!

Reading Material: "The Landlady"

You can download the story from HERE



In groups of 3, talk about the inventions on the cards.

Agree on the most / least useful / successful / popular, etc

Sample cards



Download the complete worksheet from HERE

Read Liam’s narrative. What is it about? Choose the best summary:
  • A  shocking experience
  • A terrible holiday
  • A special occasion

One day last summer I decided to spend a day by the sea with some Friends. We don’t live on the coast, so we met in town at nine o’clock in the morning and got on a bus. We arrived at about ten. We found a good place, took off our T-shirts and sat down on the sand. Suddenly, we heard a lot of noise. We stood up and looked around. A few people were shouting and waving near the edge of the water. At first, I thought there was a shark! But then, I realized that somebody had got into difficulty in the sea. Two men went into the water and carried a girl out. She wasn’t moving at all –she was unconscious. They put her down on the sand and tried to wake her up. A few minutes later, an ambulance arrived and three paramedics jumped out. They started giving the girl emergency treatment. Just then the girl’s mother arrived. She looked shocked and scared. Then the girl sat up and looked around. Her mother was so relieved that she broke down and started crying. In the end, the paramedics left and the girl went off with her mother. She was fine. But we all felt a bit strange –especially when we were swimming in the sea! It was a day I’ll never forget.

VOCABULARY - Complete these phrasal verbs from Liam’s narrative. Then choose the correct meaning for this context

1.       GET ______________         a. become very upset
2.       TAKE ______________        b. leave
3.       PUT ______________         c. place sb. or sth. on the ground
4.       BREAK ______________      d. remove (an item of clothing)
5.       GO ______________           e. enter (a vehicle)

Ø  Read Liam’s paragraph plan. Decide where the paragraph breaks should be in his narrative.
PARAGRAPH 1: Set the scene – we go to the beach
PARAGRAPH 2: Lead-up – shouting.  Somebody in difficulty
PARAGRAPH 3: Main event – girl is rescued. Paramedics and mother arrive
PARAGRAPH 4: The ending – the girl and her mother leave, but we feel strange

-        We often start a narrative with a non-specific time expression:     a few weeks ago  - about a month or so ago  -  one day last summer -  one Sunday last year
-        To show how a situation changes with time, we use:                        at first …, (but) then …
-        To talk about an unexpected event, we use: Suddenly, …
-        We use these expressions to move the narrative forward in time:  later  -  a few minutes later  -  after a while  -  later on
-        To bring the narrative to an end, we use: in the end … Or to emphasise that a lot of time has passed, we use: finally  -  at last

You can use various past tenses in your story:
à PAST SIMPLE, to describe actions which started and ended in the past, or actions which happened one after the other in the past
I went to Paris last month
I walked past the bank and stopped at the post office to buy some stamps

à PAST CONTINUOUS, to set the scene or to describe events / actions in progress at a certain time in the past
It was raining hard that evening. We were all sitting in the living room.


First-person narratives are written in the first-person (I / WE) about a series of events, real or imaginary, which happened to us. A first-person narrative should consist of:
~       An INTRODUCTION in which you set the scene (who was involved, time, place, etc) in an interesting way to make the reader want to continue reading
~        A MAIN BODY, consisting of 2 or more paragraphs, where you develop your story, presenting the events in the order they happened.
~        A CONCLUSION which includes what happened at the end of the story, as well as people’s feelings, final comments or reactions. A surprising ending makes a long-lasting impression on the reader

You should normally use PAST TENSES in such pieces of writing, as well as a variety of adjectives or adverbs to make your story more attractive to the reader.


Detailed description of events in the order they happened

End of story, feelings, comments or reactions

Make sure you write the events in the order they happened. To show the sequence of events you can use LINKING WORDS such as:

An Unforgettable Journey
by Jane Feldon
I stood on the deck, staring at the huge waves. From the moment we had left the port and sailed into the English Channel, the weather had got worse and worse. Now, lightning flashed across the sky, which was covered in dark clouds.
Suddenly, the noise of the engines stopped. The ship slowed, rolling heavily in the rough sea. A voice over the loudspeakers told us to remain calm – then added that a fire had started in the engine room, and said that all passengers must go immediately to the nearest lifeboat station.
We all ran onto the deck, following the signs to the lifeboats. The ship’s officers arrived, made sure we had lifejackets and showed us how to put them on.
I looked again in horror at the wild, stormy sea. The thought of being out there in a tiny boat was terrifying. Minutes passed like hours, until a last voice announced that everything was under control and the danger was over. We all cheered as the engines started again and the ship moved forward into the waves.
I still couldn’t believe it was over, though –not until we had reached port and I was standing on solid ground again!

An interesting beginning is as important as an interesting ending. An interesting beginning will catch the reader’s attention and make him /her want to continue reading. A good ending will make him/her feel satisfied.
You can START your story by:
  • USING YOUR SENSES to set the scene and describe the weather, almosphere, surroundings or people’s actions to create mystery or suspense.
e.g.  I could hear the wind howling around me. It was quite dark that night and it felt strange to be out in the wilderness all alone.
e.g. “Always look on the bright side of life, kids”, Mr Frisbain used to tell us.
  • ADDRESSING THE READER DIRECTLY, e.g. I am sure you all now what a bargain is
  • REFERRING TO YOUR FEELINGS OR MOODS, e.g. I was exhausted because I had been painting walls all day.

You can END your story by:
  • REFERRING TO YOU FEELINGS OR MOODS, e.g. We were shivering but we were happy to have made it.
  • ASKING RHETORICAL QUESTIONS, e.g. Why did I have to suffer so much?
  • DESCRIBING PEOPLE’S REACTIONS TO / FEELINGS ABOUT THE EVENTS DEVELOPED IN THE  MAIN BODY e.g. My brother had become the hero of the day and I was extremely proud.

Read this news story and do the exercises that follow
A wife tied up in a closet and her murdered husband stabbed 31 times - but who was the killer?
22 OCT 2017
Sandra Melgar was found tied up in a cupboard by horrified party guests. But all wasn’t as it seemed…
Friends arrived at the Texas home of Jaime and Sandra Melgar, ready for an afternoon of celebration. It was the couple’s wedding anniversary and they had invited loved ones to share their special day.
When they didn’t answer the door, the guests realised the garage door was unlocked, so let themselves in. They were faced with a horrific scene.
Jaime, 52, was dead. He had been beaten, stabbed 31 times, bound and stuffed in a cupboard. Sandra, 52, was alive but shaken. She was in a different cupboard, trapped in by a chair wedged under the handle. Her ankles were bound and her hands tied behind her back.
It looked like the couple had been caught up in a home invasion that had gone wrong, but why had the attackers killed Jaime and not Sandra? And nothing had been taken from the house, so what was the motive?
The Melgars were high-school sweethearts with a grown-up daughter, Elizabeth Rose, who had left home. They had been married for 32 years and lived in Houston, Texas. Jaime was a computer programmer, while Sandra owned a medical billing business. They appeared to be a model couple – still in love after three decades together.
It was the afternoon of 23 December 2012, when the couple’s friends walked in on the shocking scene. When police arrived, Sandra said she’d been in the bathroom with her husband at around 1am when she’d ‘blacked out’.
The next thing she knew, she was tied up in the closet. She remembered nothing about what had happened, and assumed it was a robbery. Had she been hit from behind by an intruder? She thought perhaps she had had a seizure that wiped her memory.
Such a vicious home invasion hit the headlines. The community was stunned and horrified. But the investigators were puzzled. The scene just didn’t reflect what they were being told. There was no sign of a break-in, nothing had been stolen and it was an extraordinary level of violence to leave empty-handed. The explanation of a home invasion just didn’t add up.
Police suspected that Sandra was lying. They discovered Jaime had a $500,000 (£375,000) insurance policy she would benefit from. They believed Sandra had killed her husband and staged the home invasion to cover her tracks, knowing that people would arrive the next day to discover her. It took almost two years for the police to arrest Sandra and charge her with murder – and even then, she was released on bail, free to live a normal life as she waited to face a jury.
At the trial this year, Sandra pleaded not guilty to murder. The prosecution said her motivation was the life insurance pay-out. They suggested Sandra wanted to get out of her marriage but divorce wasn’t an option because she was a Jehovah’s Witness. A failed marriage would leave her shunned by the community. But killing Jaime would give her the freedom she wanted and a great deal of money.
They told the court that Sandra had stabbed her husband 31 times with a kitchen knife the night before their anniversary, then staged the break-in. They demonstrated to the court with a crime re-enactment video how she had managed to tie her ankles and hands behind her back.
In the video, an officer also showed how she had managed to wedge the chair up against the cupboard door from the inside – she had placed a pillowcase underneath the legs of the chair, then pulled it towards her under the closet door, tearing it in the process. A torn pillowcase had been found at the scene.

Behind bars at last

The prosecutor believed that Sandra had cleaned up the crime scene after stabbing Jaime to death. They pointed out that she had a cloudy fingernail on her right hand, which they concluded was caused by cleaners and bleach.
‘This proves she’s the one. That she did it,’ the prosecutor said.
The defence focused their attention on the lead investigator of the case, who had been fired for backdating a search warrant on a different case. There was also a bloody fingerprint on a safe that was never processed, because investigators said they weren’t able to get results from it.
The defence said there was no physical evidence to connect Sandra to the murder of her husband and no bruising on her hands to suggest she’d been in an altercation with him. The jury were told that the investigators had focused on Sandra at the beginning and didn’t consider any other suspects.
"Sandy Melgar got sucked into this by a couple of cowboys [in the sheriff’s office] who came up with some theories and game over," her defence attorney said in his closing argument. "Where are the real killers? Are we going to see them in the courtroom any time soon? I wouldn’t bet on it."
In August this year, nearly five years on from the murder, and after a three-week trial, Sandra, now 57, was found guilty of murder. She cried hysterically in court when she heard the verdict and howled with her head in her hands.
Weeks later, she was sentenced to 27 years in prison. Her daughter has called it a huge miscarriage of justice and says they plan to appeal.
When Sandra stabbed her husband to death on the eve of their wedding anniversary, she tried to make out she was a victim. But she was not.

Are these statements TRUE or FALSE?  Correct the false ones.
1.     The Melgars met when they were teenagers. _____________
2.     The police arrived at the crime scene after some neighbours called them.  _____________
3.     Mrs Melgar claimed it had been a robbery.  _____________
4.     The police accused Sandra of stabbing her husband.   _____________
5.     Mrs Melgar couldn’t divorce her husband for religious reasons.  _____________

Complete the sentences below with information from the news article you have just read
 1. Jaime was ___________________________________ as Sandra: they were both 52.
2. The Melgars _________________________________________________ in high school.
3. When relatives arrived at the Melgars, they realized that Jaime __________________________________ with a knife
4. The police:  “_________________________________________________ your husband?”
Mrs Melgar: No, I haven’t.
5. Sandra insisted that an intruder  _______________________________________________ her.
6. The police couldn’t understand why the intruders  ____________________________________ anything from the house.
7. The police thought that Mrs Melgar __________________________________  because her story didn’t  add up.
8. Mrs Melgar ______________________________________________ in prison since August 2017.
9. Right now Mrs Melgar’s daughter ____________________________________________ to appeal.
10. Her daughter still ___________________________________ that she is innocent 

Watch the TV footage of the news story you’ve just read and complete the blanks with the missing information

You can download the video from HERE

The police had been searching for the killer for  1___________________________________.
The Melgars were planning to celebrate their 2 ______________________________________ anniversary.
They thought it was strange that only one person 3 __________________________________.
 People are 4 __________________________________________________ that it was not a random break-in.
Sandra was released from prison after paying a bail of 5 ______________________________.


Sandra Melgar insists she is innocent. She wants everyone to know what happened the day her husband was murdered. Write down her own version of the facts. 


You can download a Word file from HERE


Read these letters and then answer the questions below

Dear Mary,
I’m Johana Paulerová. I’m 17 years old and I’m from Ostrava. My dad is a shop manager and my mum is a nurse. I’ve got two brothers. They are called Jan and Robert.
I like reading and watching films. I also like spending time with my friends. We often go shopping together, or to a café or the cinema.
I go to Gymnázium Pisek. There are 500 students in the school, and 25 in my class. I’m studying for my Katurita exam. I study five subjects.
What time does your plane arrive in Ostrava?
Please let me know.
See you soon.

Hi Luke
My name is Pablo Perez and I’m 17 years old. I live in a village quite close to Mendoza with my mum, dad and older sister. I’ve got loads of hobbies and interests. I love football –playing and watching- and I go swimming a lot. I’m into computer games and I like listening to music. My favourite band is the Black Eyed Peas. I go to Instituto Parroquial Don Francisco de Merlo. I’m studying for my exams, including English, of course! My best subject is Maths, and my worst is probably History. There are 22 students in my class –ten girls and twelve boys. Drop me a line and let me know what time your plane gets in. We can pick you up from the airport. I’m really looking forward to meeting you.
Best wishes

Answer these questions:
ü  Who are Johana and Pablo writing to?
ü  Why are they writing? Choose two of the reasons below
o    To ask for information
o    To ask for news
o    To give news
o    To introduce themselves

VOCABULARY – Find words and expressions in Pablo’s letter with similar meanings to the words and expressions below

1.        NEAR TO                 _______________________
2.        A LOT OF                 _______________________
3.        I LIKE                       _______________________
4.        WRITE TO ME                         ______________________
5.        ARRIVES                                  ______________________
6.        COLLECT YOU FROM              ______________________

What differences are there between Johana’s Pablo’s and letter? Think about
                  -       VARIETY OF VOCABULARY

Ø  Choose the most appropriate option for an informal letter. There may be more than one possible answer
1.        START the letter with
Hi Mike                   Dear Mike               Dear Sir
2.        FINISH the letter with
Write soon              Awaiting your reply                                I look forward to hearing from you        Bye
3.        Before you sign your name, write
Best wishes            Yours faithfully                       All the best                             Ragards
4.        You should use
Full forms (I am)    Contracted forms (I’m)
5.        You                                            informal and colloquial language (e.g. mates rather than friends)
can use             shouldn’t use  


-       An introduction in which the reason for writing is clearly stated. In formal emails, it is often necessary to state who you are.
-       A main body in which you write the main subject(s) of the email in detail, starting a new paragraph for each topic.
-       A conclusion in which you restate the main points of the email and/or state your opinion. For formal emails, any action you want taken should be clearly stated at the end of the email. In informal emails, you usually end by sending your wishes and perhaps asking the other person to write back. 

(You'll find the rest of this portfolio in the Word file that you can download from HERE  )